Category: Misappropriation


Compliance Officers Beware: Your Conversations With the NFA During Examinations Could Lead to Charges

Posted on September 18th, by and in CFTC, Civil Penalties, Enforcement, Misappropriation, Mispresentations. Comments Off on Compliance Officers Beware: Your Conversations With the NFA During Examinations Could Lead to Charges

The U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) sent a strong message to Chief Compliance Officers (“CCO”) this week when it held a CCO held accountable for lying to the National Futures Association (“NFA”) during an examination. Also, if you did not believe the CFTC’s message about its intention to reach across borders to pursue bad actors, it’s time to reconsider.

Earlier this year the CFTC instituted a civil enforcement action against Phy Capital Investments, LLC and its CEO, Fabio Bretas de Freitas. The firm was formed in 2016 and the CEO solicited participants to invest in a pool to trade commodity futures contracts. According to the CFTC, despite representing to pool participants that it made substantial commodity trading profits, the firm never engaged in any trading activity and instead misappropriated participant funds. The civil charges against the firm and the CEO … Read More »


First Circuit Quietly Joins the “Personal Benefit” Fray

Posted on June 8th, by and in Insider Trading, Misappropriation. Comments Off on First Circuit Quietly Joins the “Personal Benefit” Fray

The First Circuit recently added to the increasingly ambiguous personal benefit requirement, finding that an alleged friendship and promises for free “wine, steak, and visits to a massage parlor” were enough to support a misappropriation theory of liability for insider trading. United States v. Parigian, — F.3d —, No. 15-1994, 2016 WL 3027702, at *2 (1st Cir. May 26, 2016). As highlighted in previous posts, the Second and Ninth Circuits have interpreted the personal benefit requirement differently, and in January, the Supreme Court granted certiorari to review the issue.

Parigian pleaded guilty to criminal securities fraud on the condition that he could appeal the denial of his motion to dismiss the superseding indictment for failing to allege a crime. Id. at *1. The indictment alleged that Parigian’s golfing buddy, Eric McPhail, provided nonpublic information to Parigian that McPhail had received from … Read More »


SEC v. Jacobs May Signal Limit to Duty of Trust or Confidence Required to Prove Insider Trading Based on Misappropriation Theory

Posted on March 20th, by and in Insider Trading, Jury Verdicts, Misappropriation, Relationship of Trust and Confidence. Comments Off on SEC v. Jacobs May Signal Limit to Duty of Trust or Confidence Required to Prove Insider Trading Based on Misappropriation Theory

To prevail on an insider-trading claim pursuant to Section 10(b) of the Exchange Act and Rule 10b-5 thereunder based on the misappropriation theory, the SEC must prove that the defendant (1) misappropriated material, nonpublic information; (2) had a duty of trust or confidence; (3) breached that duty; (4) purchased or sold securities, or tipped another who purchased or sold securities, on the basis of that information; and (5) knew or should have known that he or she was trading or tipping others on inappropriately obtained information. Dirks v. SEC, 463 U.S. 646, 660 (1983). The SEC has identified three nonexhaustive circumstances that create a duty of trust or confidence; they are (1) when a person agrees to maintain information in confidence; (2) when there is a history, pattern, or practice of sharing confidences and the recipient knows or reasonably should know … Read More »




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