In a recent announcement, the CFTC indicated it would not appeal its district court loss in CFTC v. DRW, stating, “After careful consideration of the issues, as well as discussion with agency staff and Commissioners, Chairman Giancarlo has decided the agency will not appeal the district court’s decision.”
In 2013, the CFTC filed a complaint against principal trading firm DRW Investments, LLC (“DRW”) and its principal, alleging price manipulation of a various interest rate swaps futures contract in 2011, specifically the IDEX Three-Month Interest Rate Swap Future (the “Three-Month Contract”). The CFTC alleged that DRW’s bidding practices in the Three-Month Contract created artificial daily settlement prices. The Commission based this assertion primarily upon the fact that the bids in question were higher than the corresponding rates in the contemporaneous over the counter (“OTC”) swap market. DRW argued its bids were not … Read More »
In an effort to increase awareness and attention by
regulated entities, the CFTC’s divisions of Market Oversight (DMO), Swap Dealer
& Intermediary Oversight (DSIO), and Clearing & Risk (DCR) announced
their 2019 examination priorities. This marks the first time that the agency
has published division
examination priorities, and Chairman Giancarolo commended CFTC
leadership and staff for their work in bringing additional transparency into
the CFTC’s agenda.
Tasked with oversight of trade execution
facilities, DMO focuses its examination priorities on designated contract markets (DCMs) and swap
execution facilities (SEFs). DMO’s Compliance Branch conducts examinations of DCMs
to monitor their compliance with the Commodity Exchange Act and CFTC
regulations. Throughout 2018 the Compliance Branch completed a review of 11
DCM’s self-regulatory operations. Based on this review, and feedback from the
DCM staff, the division identified the following topics for in-depth
examination in 2019:
cryptocurrency surveillance practices; surveillance for disruptive trading (including
DCMs’ rules, surveillance practices, investigations, and disciplinary … Read More »
Earlier this month, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission issued their annual reports about their Divisions of Enforcement results for fiscal year 2018. Analyzing these reports is a helpful way for us to learn from the recent historical enforcement efforts by both financial regulatory agencies. Also, both reports provide guidance about the divisions’ objectives and initiatives for the upcoming fiscal year and beyond. Below we explore and summarize the important topics covered in both reports.
The SEC issued its FY2018 Annual Report earlier this month. The last several pages categorize and list every action filed by SEC Enforcement during FY2018; this provides a useful reference tool. In addition, this report continues to evolve and provide more information than in years past. Not surprisingly, the report highlights SEC Chairman Jay Clayton’s direction to SEC Enforcement … Read More »
“The definition of ‘commodity’ is broad. Bitcoin and other virtual currencies are encompassed in the definition and properly defined as commodities.” (In re Coinflip, Inc., CFTC No. 15-29 (Sept. 17, 2015)). This has been the view of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) since at least 2015, and the courts increasingly appear to be affirming the Commission’s assertion of jurisdiction over the virtual currency market.
The U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts is the latest court to rule that virtual currencies are commodities, and subject to CFTC jurisdiction. (See CFTC v. My Big Coin Pay, Inc, 1:18-CV-10011-RWZ). In My Big Coin, the district court entered an order holding that the CFTC has the power to prosecute fraud involving virtual currency, even in instances where there is no futures contract over the relevant virtual currency.
A “commodity” as defined in the … Read More »
The National Futures Association (“NFA”) recently proposed an interpretive notice updating disclosure requirements for its members engaged in virtual currency (i.e. cryptocurrency) activities. Self-Regulatory Organizations are increasingly interested in their members’ activities in the emerging virtual currency market, with the NFA’s notice following on the heels of a FINRA Regulatory Notice encouraging its members to self-report their virtual currency activities. (See here for detail on FINRA’s notice).
The apparent catalyst for the NFA’s recent proposal was the launch of bitcoin futures by the CME and CBOE Futures Exchange in December 2017. Concerned that the growth of the market has attracted investors that may not fully appreciate the substantial risk of loss that may rise from trading virtual currencies, and the NFA’s limited regulatory oversight authority, the NFA developed the enhanced disclosure requirements for members.
According to the NFA’s interpretive notice, virtual currencies … Read More »
On April 25, 2018, a New Haven federal jury acquitted a former trader with a global bank accused of scheming to manipulate the precious metals futures markets with “spoofing,” a trading tactic that involves the use of allegedly deceptive bids or offers to feign the appearance of supply or demand. This appears to be one of the first setbacks for the Department of Justice (“DOJ”), U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”), and futures self-regulatory organizations since they began aggressively investigating and civilly and criminally charging futures traders with spoofing several years ago. After successfully defeating Michael Coscia’s appeal to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, this aggression accelerated with the CFTC’s and DOJ’s coordinated charges in January against several firms and traders. This verdict, however, may cause them to re-visit their aggression and certain strategies.
While it is … Read More »
Last week, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) and Department of Justice (DOJ) filed their most significant and aggressive actions against spoofers and the firms employing them for failing to supervise. The CFTC filed settled actions against each of the global firms for supervisory violations, amongst other charges, and the CFTC charged six individuals with alleged commodities fraud and spoofing schemes. In the parallel criminal actions, the DOJ announced criminal charges against eight individuals (the six charged by the CFTC plus two others). The CFTC’s and DOJ’s coordinated and complex investigative efforts and filings indicate increased aggressiveness by both in this area. Further, these efforts represent the greatest amount of cooperation ever between the CFTC and DOJ. As reported previously in this blog post, with the affirmation of the conviction of high-frequency trader Michael Coscia, we are likely witnessing a … Read More »
In recent days, Bitcoin prices have surged past $11,000 before dropping back to around $10,000. This represents a more than 1000% growth since the start of 2017. In the last month alone, the price has more than doubled. This surge follows the announcement by the CME Group, the world’s leading derivatives marketplace, to launch Bitcoin futures on December 18. CBOE Global Markets Inc. also intends to launch a Bitcoin futures soon. Both received a green light from the CFTC today, December 1, through the process of self-certification – a pledge that the products do not run afoul of the law. There are also rumors that NASDAQ will launch a futures contract based on Bitcoin in 2018.
Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency, a digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange using cryptography to secure the transaction and verify the transfer … Read More »
On July 26, 2017, the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) issued an order finding that Simon Posen engaged in the “disruptive practice of ‘spoofing’ (bidding or offering with the intent to cancel the bid or offer before execution).” The CFTC’s findings, which spanned more than three years, beginning at least in December of 2011, indicated that Posen, based in New York City, had traded from his home, using his own account, in violation of Section 4c(a)(5)(C) of the Commodity Exchange Act (7 U.S.C. § 6c(a)(5)(C)), which explicitly outlaws spoofing.
The CFTC found Posen placed thousands of orders in gold, silver, copper, and crude oil futures contracts with the intent to cancel them before execution. These orders were placed so as to move the market prices so that smaller orders, which he would also place on the other side of the … Read More »
The future is now.
On June 29, 2017, the U.S. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry voted overwhelmingly to confirm the nomination of J. Christopher Giancarlo as Chairman of the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”), paving the way for his nomination to move forward to consideration on the floor of the U.S. Senate. Within two hours of this announcement, the CFTC announced its first non-prosecution agreements. These agreements and the related “spoofing” cases are discussed in more detail below. These same-day announcements reflect the advancing ambitious agenda outlined by Acting Chairman Giancarlo in his speech entitled “CFTC: A New Direction Forward,” given on March 15, 2017. Acting Chairman Giancarlo has since taken every opportunity to advise the industry of his goals to reduce regulatory burdens, modernize the agency, and maintain the CFTC’s aggressive enforcement efforts. All the while, the … Read More »